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Dictionary of terms

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Agglutination

Serological reaction of agglutinogen with agglutinin, manifested by agglutinogen aggregation and the formation of specific visible clumps.

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Amplification

Increase the copy number of RNA or DNA molecules. In molecular diagnostics, DNA / RNA amplification is a prerequisite for numerous genetic tests.

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Atellica® Solution

Clinical chemistry analyzers featuring patented bidirectional magnetic sample-transport technology combined with automation-ready immunoassays.

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Bed Site Testing

(same as POCT or Point-of-care testing) is defined as medical diagnostic testing at (or near) the point of care, at the time and place of patient care. It is medical testing that is performed outside of a laboratory setting.

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CCDs

Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants describe protein-linked carbohydrate structures responsible for the phenomenon of cross-reactivity of sera from allergic patients towards a wide range of allergens from plants and insects.

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Chemiluminescence

Spontaneous emission of light as the result of chemical reaction (there may be a limited emission of heat).

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Covid19 (Coronavirus disease 2019)

Is an infectious disease caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is the third zoonotic coronavirus to be identified (after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). The immune response by humans to CoV-2 virus occurs as a combination of cell-mediated immunity and antibody production.

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GeneXpert

The GeneXpert system is a closed, self-contained, fully integrated and 100% automated platform that enables complete automation of molecular analysis. It is available in a one, two, four, or 16-module configuration. All use the same patented cartridge technology for every Xpert® test.

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Hemoculture

A microbiological culture made from blood to detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms.

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IgE

Immunoglobulin E is a type of antibody that has only been found in mammals. IgE is synthesised by plasma cells. Its main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths. IgE has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests in various allergic diseases. IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens such as: anaphylactic reactions to drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy.

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MALDI-TOF

Matrix  Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) combined with flight time detector (TOF = Time of Flight). The spectrophotometric method for accurate identification of bacteria, fungi and yeasts isolated from biological material, animals, food and environmental samples. It is a very efficient, fast and robust method for microbiological laboratories.

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MIC

The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic is the lowest concentration of the antimicrobial chemical that inhibits the visible growth of the microorganism after 24 hours of incubation.

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Multiplex pcr

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction is a type of PCR  when DNA in samples is amplified using multiple primers and a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cycler. The method is used to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction).

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Nasopharyngeal swab

A method for collecting a clinical test sample of nasal secretions from the back of the nose and throat. The pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the esophagus and larynx – the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs. The nasopharynx is the upper portion of the pharynx.

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POC-testing

Point-of-care testing (POCT, bedside testing) is defined as medical diagnostic testing at (or near) the point of care, at the time and place of patient care. It is medical testing that is performed outside of a laboratory setting.

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RAA test

Residual Antimicrobial Activity (RAA) test  used in the cultivation of liquid body fluid samples in automated systems.

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